In the Cool Shade of the Beer Garden

It was one of those August days when the sun-baked cobblestones seem to transcend themselves in mirage-like fashion. Since arriving in Salzburg earlier that day, we had been exploring a baroque palace here, a castle overlooking the city there, and churches everywhere. Definitely time for a beer, one of my friends declared. Another suggested a visit to the Augustiner, where we could relax in its chestnut grove with a cold stein.Augustiner Stein (FB pg) With one last burst of energy we crossed the foot bridge over the Salzach and climbed the hill in the direction of the Augustiner. As soon as we descended the stairs into the cellar precincts, the summer heat faded away. We threaded our way through stalls selling bratwurst and pretzels, and came upon the counter where a gruff barkeep in lederhosen was tapping beer straight from the barrel. Steins in hand, we headed out into the beer garden to partake of a venerable tradition: an al fresco Maß (liter mug) of beer among lively groups of friends and families who had gathered at tables and benches in the afternoon shade of the chestnut trees.

* * *

This particularly enjoyable rite of spring and summer traces its history to early nineteenth-century Bavaria. Back in 1812, King Maximilian I. Joseph of Bavaria (1806-1825) set the development of beer garden culture on its present course with a Solomon-like decree that diffused the tensions that had been (ahem) brewing between Munich’s innkeepers and brewers. The dispute had its roots in the set of reforms that King Max had enacted, first as duke, and then as king. Some of these reforms proved more favourable to private Bavarian brewers than had previously been the case during the era of aristocratic brewing prerogatives, and breweries began to proliferate along the Isar River. During the warm summer months in particular, the citizens of Munich took to spending more of their time (and money) at the beer cellars on the banks of the Isar, preferring these shaded chestnut groves to the rather stuffy inns where the beer was decidedly less fresh.

Unsurprisingly, the innkeepers of Munich became increasingly incensed that they were losing revenue to the beer brewers who were also selling food to accompany their refreshing beers. They petitioned Maximilian –– connoisseur of the good life who was more likely to be seen at Munich’s Viktualienmarkt than at the barracks –– to do something.BeerGarden - Rescript_Max_I_Joseph_1812-01-04 A friend and supporter of brewers and innkeepers alike, their good King Maxl paid heed. The resulting decree of January 4, 1812 benefitted both parties and put its stamp on the history of the Bavarian beer garden down to the present day. Brewers could, indeed, keep right on selling their beer fresh from the beer cellars beneath their leafy gardens. But in a nod to the concerns of the innkeepers, the beer garden precincts were limited to the sale of beer and bread.

* * *

Now, as for these beer cellars (Bierkeller) that gave rise to beer gardens? Beer gardens as we’ve come to know them in Bavaria and beyond are difficult to imagine without the history of a beer style many of us have come to know and love: lager. In the centuries before the invention of refrigeration, brewers sunk cellars on the grounds of their breweries. There, they covered their beer with ice blocks hewed in March from the still-frozen lakes and rivers of the region.

Even though monasteries and abbeys had been storing their beer in cellars and in caves at the foot of the Alps since the Middle Ages, the sinking of cellars in Munich accelerated in response to a decree promulgated by Duke Albrecht V in 1553. Despite the vaunted Reinheitsgebot of 1516, not all Bavarian beer was gold, so the duke declared that Bavarians were allowed to brew beer between St. Michael’s Day (September 29) and St. George’s Day (April 23) only. One of the reasons cited for the decree of 1553 was a fear of summer conflagrations caused by hot brew kettles. More importantly, though, brewers and the authorities who knew a good beer when they tasted it had, by the mid-1550s, learned a fair amount about the effects of cold fermentation on beer quality. Slower fermentation between 7 and 12 Celsius (44-55F) in conjunction with extended lagering (lagern = to store) at temperatures near freezing yielded a cleaner beer that kept longer than the top-fermented ales brewed in warmer conditions.

Beer cellars also enabled brewers to store their beer during the months they weren’t brewing, thereby ensuring a steady supply of fresh and stable beer during the summer months. As a further means of keeping the temperature of their cellars cool, brewers planted broad-leafed and shallow-rooted horse chestnut trees. From there, it wasn’t an enormous leap from the cellar to the shade. Enterprising brewers began to set out tables and chairs under the leafy canopy shading their cellars, and voilà: the beer garden. BierGarten - AugustinerMunich (FB page)If you’re lucky enough to live in a North American town that boasts a beer garden, or are even luckier and live in or will be visiting a Germanic country this spring or summer, raise a stein to the wise Bavarians who inaugurated these traditions. What better place is there to enjoy a crisp and spicy wheat beer or an effervescent Pilsner on a spring or summer day than in a beer garden?

Related Tempest Articles

The MaltHead Manifesto

Gose: A Beer Worth Its Salt

A Coal Town and a Cold One: My Hefeweizen Craft Beer Conversion

Let Us Now Praise Famous Lagers: Your Saturday Six-Pack (Vol.3)

Pinning Down Place

Further Reading

German Beer Institute.

Horst D. Dornbusch, Prost! The Story of German Beer (Boulder: Brewers Publications, 1997).

Michael Jackson, The New World Guide to Beer (Philadelphia: Running Press, 1988).

Sabine Herre, “Geschichte der bayrischen Biergärten: Im Schatten der Kastanie,” taz (26 May 2012).

Images

Stein (Augustiner Bräustübl Salzburg Mülln Facebook page)

Decree by King Maximilian I. Joseph of Bavaria allowing Munich brewers to serve beer from their cellars, but prohibiting the sale of food other than bread (January 4, 1812). Bayrishes Hauptstaatsarchiv, München. Image available on WikiCommons.

Beer Garden, Augustinerbäu München

© 2015 F.D. Hofer and A Tempest in a Tankard. All Rights Reserved.

5 thoughts on “In the Cool Shade of the Beer Garden

  1. Pingback: Professor Good Ales » Post Topic » In the Cool Shade of the Beer Garden

  2. Marc

    Wonderful history of the beer garden here, thank you! I will in fact be in Germany in June – and will definitely take your advice and make my way to a beer garden, with this history firmly in mind.

      1. Marc

        Berlin for a couple of days, then 10 days in Erlangen, with a couple days in Frankfurt… will have to hit you up for some tips. This post really whetted my appetite for some beer in a garden though!

        1. A Tempest in a Tankard Post author

          Marc,

          I hope these recommendations make it to you before your trip. I’ve never been to Erlangen, but since it’s smack-dab in the middle of Franconia, I’m sure you won’t go wrong. Let me know what you find! At any rate, Nürnberg is just down the road. You mentioned you’ll be in Germany in June. If you happen to be in Erlangen in early June, you’ll be able to take in the town’s annual Bergkirchweih beer festival, which takes place during the twelve days before and after Pentecost, which falls on 24 May this year.

          Frankfurt’s another town I don’t know that well, but if you have some extra time, jump on the S-Bahn or any regional train bound for Koblenz and head to Mainz. It’s been several years since I spent any length of time in Mainz, but it appears the Quartier Mayence is still going strong.

          Berlin isn’t quite as renowned for its beer culture as Bavaria is, but that doesn’t mean there aren’t beer garden options. The Prater is the oldest beer garden in Berlin, and is in the bustling Prenzlauerberg district. If you’re in the mood for something less gritty, the Café am Neuen See in the Tiergarten has all the leafy shade you can ask for, and it’s right alongside a small lake. Also in the Tiergarten, but a bit closer to the Berlin-Zoo train station, is the Schleusenkrug. Last time I was there, the beer selection wasn’t stellar, but the ambience is great –– and you’ll be drinking atop a bit of Cold War history. “Schleusen” means “sluice,” and the beer garden is located at one of the locks on the Spree Canal that winds its way through central Berlin. During the Cold War, the East German authorities controlled traffic along the canal. Even though the Berlin Wall itself didn’t run near that part of the Tiergarten, the East Germans had a checkpoint right beneath the beer garden. You mentioned that you won’t be in Berlin for that long, but if you want to get out of the city center and into the leafy districts that ring the city, you could do worse than to find an S-Bahn heading to Wannsee in the southwest, Frohnau in the north, or Köpenick (on the banks of the charmingly-named Müggelsee) in the eastern reaches of Berlin.

          Whatever you end up doing in June, post back here to let us know what you found! In the meantime, Prost!

Comments are closed.